Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Dependency > Chapter 2 - Drugs That Get Abuse

The Drugs that Get Abused

We’ll begin with a look at the substances themselves that are most commonly abused. These are the drugs most people think of when the subject of substance abuse is mentioned. Some of the common names for these drugs include marijuana, Methamphetamines, barbiturates, Hallucinogens, etc.

A.Drug Chart

This chart is provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. As a clinician working with and treating those with substance use disorders and addictions, this information helps as a resource. The chart includes names, symptoms and treatment options, both medical and behavioral, for each type of substance. This chart and updated information can be found on the NIDA website: www.drugabuse.gov

 

Commonly Abused Drugs

Most drugs of abuse can alter a person's thinking and judgment, leading to health risks, including addiction, drugged driving, and infectious disease. Most drugs could potentially harm an unborn baby; pregnancy-related issues are listed in the chart below for drugs where there is enough scientific evidence to connect the drug use to specific negative effects.

For information about treatment options for drug addiction, see the NIDA’s Treatment pages. For drug use trends, see our Trends and Statistics page.


The following drugs are included in this resource:
  • Alcohol
  • Ayahuasca
  • Cocaine
  • DMT
  • GHB
  • Hallucinogens
  • Heroin
  • Inhalants
  • Ketamine
  • Khat
  • Kratom
  • LSD
  • Marijuana(Cannabis)
  • MDMA(Ecstasy/Molly)
  • Mescaline(Peyote)
  • Methamphetamine
  • Over-the-counter Cough/Cold Medicines (Dextromethorphan orDXM)
  • PCP
  • Prescription Opioids
  • Prescription Sedatives (Tranquilizers,Depressants)
  • Prescription Stimulants
  • Psilocybin
  • Rohypnol(Flunitrazepam)
  • Salvia
  • Steroids(Anabolic)
  • SyntheticCannabinoids
  • Synthetic Cathinones ("BathSalts")
  • Tobacco

**The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) schedule indicates the drug’s acceptable medical use and its potential for abuse or dependence. The most up-to-date scheduling information can be found on the DEA website.

Alcohol

People drink to socialize, celebrate, and relax. Alcohol often has a strong effect on people—and throughout history, people have struggled to understand and manage alcohol’s power. Why does alcohol cause people to act and feel differently? How much is too much? Why do some people become addicted while others do not? The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is researching the answers to these and many other questions about alcohol. Here’s what is known:

Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a variety of factors, including:

  • How much you drink
  • How often you drink
  • Your age
  • Your health status
  • Your family history

[Qn.No.1.Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a variety of factors, including:]

While drinking alcohol is itself not necessarily a problem— drinking too much can cause a range of consequences, and increase your risk for a variety of problems. For more information on alcohol’s effects on the body, please see the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s related web page describing alcohol’s effects on the body.




Ayahuasca

A hallucinogenic tea made in the Amazon from a DMT-containing plant (Psychotria viridis or Diplopterys cabrerana or other) along with another vine (Banisteriopsis caapi) that contains an MAO Inhibitor preventing the natural breakdown of DMT in the digestive system, thereby facilitating a prolonged hallucinatory experience. It was used historically in Amazonian religious and healing rituals and is increasingly used by tourists. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.


Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Aya, Yagé, Hoasca No commercial uses Brewed as tea Swallowed as tea DMT is Schedule I, but plants containing it are not controlled
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Strong hallucinations including perceptions of otherworldly imagery, altered visual and auditory perceptions; increased blood pressure; vomiting.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications It is not known whether ayahuasca is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to ayahuasca or other hallucinogens.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if ayahuasca is addictive and, if so, whether behavioral therapies are effective.

[Qn.No.2.There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to ayahuasca or other hallucinogens.True/False]


Cocaine

A powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. For more information, see the Cocaine Research Report..


Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Blow, Bump, C, Candy, Charlie, Coke, Crack, Flake, Rock, Snow, Toot Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution (anesthetic rarely used in medical procedures) White powder, whitish rock crystal Snorted, smoked, injected II
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Narrowed blood vessels; enlarged pupils; increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; headache; abdominal pain and nausea; euphoria; increased energy, alertness; insomnia, restlessness; anxiety; erratic and violent behavior, panic attacks, paranoia, psychosis; heart rhythm problems, heart attack; stroke, seizure, coma.
Long-term Loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, nasal damage and trouble swallowing from snorting; infection and death of bowel tissue from decreased blood flow; poor nutrition and weight loss from decreased appetite.
Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: premature delivery, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Greater risk of overdose and sudden death than from either drug alone.
Withdrawal Symptoms Depression, tiredness, increased appetite, insomnia, vivid unpleasant dreams, slowed thinking and movement, restlessness.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat cocaine addiction.
Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)
  • Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers
  • Contingency management, or motivational incentives
  • The matrix model
  • 12-Step facilitation therapy
[Qn.No.3.A powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America is:]
[Qn.No.4.FDA approved behavioral therapies to treat cocaine are:]


DMT

A synthetic drug producing intense but relatively short-lived hallucinogenic experiences; also naturally occurring in some South American plants (See Ayahuasca). For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.


Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
DMT, Dimitri No commercial uses White or yellow crystalline powder Smoked, injected I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Intense visual hallucinations, depersonalization, auditory distortions, and an altered perception of time and body image, usually resolving in 30-45 minutes or less. Physical effects include hypertension, increased heart rate, agitation, seizures, dilated pupils, involuntary rapid eye movements, dizziness, incoordination.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues At high doses, coma and respiratory arrest have occurred.
In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications It is not known whether DMT is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to DMT or other hallucinogens.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if DMT is addictive and, if so, whether behavioral therapies are effective.


GHB

A depressant approved for use in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder that causes daytime "sleep attacks."


Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
G, Georgia Home Boy, Goop, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Soap, Scoop Gamma- hydroxybutyrate or sodium oxybate (Xyrem®) Colorless liquid, white powder Swallowed (often combined with alcohol or other beverages) I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Euphoria, drowsiness, decreased anxiety, confusion, memory loss, hallucinations, excited and aggressive behavior, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness, seizures, slowed heart rate and breathing, lower body temperature, coma, death.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues Sometimes used as a date rape drug.
In Combination with Alcohol Nausea, problems with breathing, greatly increased depressant effects.
Withdrawal Symptoms Insomnia, anxiety, tremors, sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, psychotic thoughts.
Treatment Options
Medications Benzodiazepines
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat GHB addiction.

[Qn.No.5.A depressant approved for use in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder that causes daytime "sleep attacks" is:]


Hallucinogens

Drugs that cause profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality, such as ketamine, LSD, mescaline (peyote), PCP, psilocybin, salvia, DMT, and ayahuasca. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative DrugsResearch Report.



Heroin

An opioid drug made from morphine, a natural substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. For more information, see the Heroin Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Brown sugar, China White, Dope, H, Horse, Junk, Skag, Skunk, Smack, White Horse With OTC cold medicine and antihistamine: Cheese No commercial uses White or brownish powder, or black sticky substance known as "black tar heroin" Injected, smoked, snorted I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Euphoria; warm flushing of skin; dry mouth; heavy feeling in the hands and feet; clouded thinking; alternate wakeful and drowsy states; itching; nausea; vomiting; slowed breathing and heart rate.
Long-term Collapsed veins; abscesses (swollen tissue with pus); infection of the lining and valves in the heart; constipation and stomach cramps; liver or kidney disease; pneumonia.
Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Dangerous slowdown of heart rate and breathing, coma, death.
Withdrawal Symptoms Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.
Treatment Options
Medications
  • Methadone
  • Buprenorphine
  • Naltrexone (short- and long-actingforms)
Behavioral Therapies
  • Contingency management, or motivationalincentives
  • 12-Step facilitation therapy
[Qn.No.7.An opioid drug made from morphine, a natural substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant:]


Inhalants

Solvents, aerosols, and gases found in household products such as spray paints, markers, glues, and cleaning fluids; also nitrites (e.g., amyl nitrite), which are Prescription medications for chest pain. For more information, see the Inhalants Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Poppers, snappers, whippets, laughing gas Various Paint thinners or removers, degreasers, dry-cleaning fluids, gasoline, lighter fluids, correction fluids, permanent markers, electronics cleaners and freeze sprays, glue, spray paint, hair or deodorant sprays, fabric protector sprays, aerosol computer cleaning products, vegetable oil sprays, butane lighters, propane tanks, whipped cream aerosol containers, refrigerant gases, ether, chloroform, halothane, nitrous oxide Inhaled through the nose or mouth Not scheduled
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Confusion; nausea; slurred speech; lack of coordination; euphoria; dizziness; drowsiness; disinhibition, lightheadedness, hallucinations/delusions; headaches; sudden sniffing death due to heart failure (from butane, propane, and other chemicals in aerosols); death from asphyxiation, suffocation, convulsions or seizures, coma, or choking.
Nitrites: enlarged blood vessels, enhanced sexual pleasure, increased heart rate, brief sensation of heat and excitement, dizziness, headache.
Long-term Liver and kidney damage; bone marrow damage; limb spasms due to nerve damage; brain damage from lack of oxygen that can cause problems with thinking, movement, vision, and hearing.
Nitrites: increased risk of pneumonia.
Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: low birth weight, bone problems, delayed behavioral development due to brain problems, altered metabolism and body composition.
In Combination with Alcohol Nitrites: dangerously low blood pressure.
Withdrawal Symptoms Nausea, loss of appetite, sweating, tics, problems sleeping, and mood changes.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat inhalant addiction.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat inhalant addiction.
[Qn.No.6.Possible health problems due to the long term use of inhalants are:]
[Qn.No.8.Inhalants do not include:]


Ketamine

A dissociative drug used as an anesthetic in veterinary practice. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs ResearchReport.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Cat Valium, K, Special K, Vitamin K Ketalar® Liquid, white powder Injected, snorted, smoked (powder added to tobacco or marijuana cigarettes), swallowed III
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Problems with attention, learning, and memory; dreamlike states, hallucinations; sedation; confusion and problems speaking; loss of memory; problems moving, to the point of being immobile; raised blood pressure; unconsciousness; slowed breathing that can lead to death.
Long-term Ulcers and pain in the bladder; kidney problems; stomach pain; depression; poor memory.
Other Health-related Issues Sometimes used as a date rape drug.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Increased risk of adverse effects.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to ketamine or other dissociative drugs.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to dissociative drugs.
[Qn.No.9.A dissociative drug used as an anesthetic in veterinary practice is:
Qn.No.10.Dissociative drugs are _______ that cause the user to feel detached from reality.]


Khat

Pronounced "cot," a shrub (Catha edulis) found in East Africa and southern Arabia; contains the psychoactive chemicals cathinone and cathine. People from African and Arabian regions (up to an estimated 20 million worldwide) have used khat for centuries as part of cultural tradition and for its stimulant-like effects.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Abyssinian Tea, African Salad, Catha, Chat, Kat, Oat No commercial uses Fresh or dried leaves Chewed, brewed as tea Cathinone is a Schedule I drug, making khat use illegal, but the khat plant is not controlled
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Euphoria, increased alertness and arousal, increased blood pressure and heart rate, depression, inability to concentrate, irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia.
Long-term Tooth decay and gum disease; gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation, ulcers, stomach inflammation, and increased risk of upper gastrointestinal tumors; cardiovascular disorders such as irregular heartbeat, decreased blood flow, and heart attack.
Other Health-related Issues In rare cases associated with heavy use: psychotic reactions such as fear, anxiety, grandiose delusions (fantastical beliefs that one has superior qualities such as fame, power, and wealth), hallucinations, and paranoia.
In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
Withdrawal Symptoms Depression, nightmares, trembling, and lack of energy.
Treatment Options
Medications It is not known whether khat is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to khat.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if khat is addictive and, if so, whether behavioral therapies are effective.


Kratom

A tropical deciduous tree (Mitragyna speciosa) native to Southeast Asia, with leaves that contain mitragynine, a psychoactive (mind-altering) opioid. Kratom is consumed for mood-lifting effects and pain relief and as an aphrodisiac. For more information, see the Kratom DrugFacts

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Herbal Speedball, Biak-biak, Ketum, Kahuam, Ithang, Thom None Fresh or dried leaves, powder, liquid, gum Chewed (whole leaves); eaten (mixed in food or brewed as tea); occasionally smoked Not scheduled
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Sensitivity to sunburn, nausea, itching, sweating, dry mouth, constipation, increased urination, loss of appetite.
Low doses: increased energy, sociability, alertness.
High doses: sedation, euphoria, decreased pain.
Long-term Anorexia, weight loss, insomnia, skin darkening, dry mouth, frequent urination, constipation. Hallucination and paranoia with long-term use at high doses.
Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
Withdrawal Symptoms Muscle aches, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggression, emotional changes, runny nose, jerky movements.
Treatment Options
Medications No clinical trials have been conducted on medications for kratom addiction.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to kratom.
[Qn.No.11.Kratom is a tropical deciduous tree (Mitragyna speciosa) native to Southeast Asia, with leaves that contain ______,a psychoactive (mind-altering) opioid.
Qn.No.12.Herbal Speedball, Biak-biak, Ketum, Kahuam, Ithang, Thom are the street names for:]


LSD

A hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. LSD is an abbreviation of the scientific name lysergic acid diethylamide. For more information, see the Hallucinogensand Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Acid, Blotter, Blue Heaven, Cubes, Microdot, Yellow Sunshine No commercial uses Tablet; capsule; clear liquid; small, decorated squares of absorbent paper that liquid has been added to Swallowed, absorbed through mouth tissues (paper squares) I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Rapid emotional swings; distortion of a person’s ability to recognize reality, think rationally, or communicate with others; raised blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature; dizziness and insomnia; loss of appetite; dry mouth; sweating; numbness; weakness; tremors; enlarged pupils.
Long-term Frightening flashbacks (called Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder [HPPD]); ongoing visual disturbances, disorganized thinking, paranoia, and mood swings.
Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
In Combination with Alcohol May decrease the perceived effects of alcohol.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to LSD or other hallucinogens.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to hallucinogens.
[Qn.No.13.A hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.]


Marijuana(Cannabis)

Marijuana is made from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The main psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. For more information, see the . Marijuana Research Report

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Blunt, Bud, Dope, Ganja, Grass, Green, Herb, Joint, Mary Jane, Pot, Reefer, Sinsemilla, Skunk, Smoke, Trees, Weed; Hashish: Boom, Gangster, Hash,Hemp Various brand names in states where the sale of marijuana is legal Greenish-gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and/or flowers; resin (hashish) or sticky, black liquid (hash oil) Smoked, eaten (mixed in food or brewed as tea) I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Enhanced sensory perception and euphoria followed by drowsiness/relaxation; slowed reaction time; problems with balance and coordination; increased heart rate and appetite; problems with learning and memory; hallucinations; anxiety; panic attacks; psychosis.
Long-term Mental health problems, chronic cough, frequent respiratory infections.
Other Health-related Issues Youth: possible loss of IQ points when repeated use begins in adolescence.
Pregnancy: babies born with problems with attention, memory, and problem solving.
In Combination with Alcohol Increased heart rate, blood pressure; further slowing of mental processing and reaction time.
Withdrawal Symptoms Irritability, trouble sleeping, decreased appetite, anxiety.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat marijuana addiction.
Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)
  • Contingency management, or motivationalincentives
  • Motivational Enhancement Therapy(MET)
  • Behavioral treatments geared toadolescents


MDMA
(Ecstasy/Molly)

A synthetic, psychoactive drug that has similarities to both the stimulant amphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an abbreviation of the scientific name 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. For more information, see the MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Adam, Clarity, Eve, Lover's Speed, Peace, Uppers No commercial uses Colorful tablets with imprinted logos, capsules, powder, liquid Swallowed, snorted I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Lowered inhibition; enhanced sensory perception; confusion; depression; sleep problems; anxiety; increased heart rate and blood pressure; muscle tension; teeth clenching; nausea; blurred vision; faintness; chills or sweating; sharp rise in body temperature leading to liver, kidney, or heart failure and death.
Long-term Long-lasting confusion, depression, problems with attention, memory, and sleep; increased anxiety, impulsiveness, aggression; loss of appetite; less interest in sex.
Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
In Combination with Alcohol May increase the risk of cell and organ damage.
Withdrawal Symptoms Fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, trouble concentrating.
Treatment Options
Medications There is conflicting evidence about whether MDMA is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat MDMA addiction.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat MDMA addiction.
[Qn.No.14.3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine is the scientific name for:]


Mescaline(Peyote)

A hallucinogen found in disk-shaped "buttons" in the crown of several cacti, including peyote. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Buttons, Cactus, Mesc No commercial uses Fresh or dried buttons, capsule Swallowed (chewed or soaked in water and drunk) I
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Enhanced perception and feeling; hallucinations; euphoria; anxiety; increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; sweating; problems with movement.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to mescaline or other hallucinogens.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to hallucinogens.


Methamphetamine

An extremely addictive stimulant amphetamine drug. For more information, see the Methamphetamine Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Crank, Chalk, Crystal, Fire, Glass, Go Fast, Ice, Meth, Speed Desoxyn® White powder or pill; crystal meth looks like pieces of glass or shiny blue-white "rocks" of different sizes Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected II
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Increased wakefulness and physical activity; decreased appetite; increased breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature; irregular heartbeat.
Long-term Anxiety, confusion, insomnia, mood problems, violent behavior, paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, weight loss, severe dental problems ("meth mouth"), intense itching leading to skin sores from scratching.
Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: premature delivery; separation of the placenta from the uterus; low birth weight; lethargy; heart and brain problems.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Masks the depressant effect of alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may increase blood pressure and jitters.
Withdrawal Symptoms Depression, anxiety, tiredness.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat methamphetamine addiction.
Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)
  • Contingency management, or motivational incentives
  • The matrix model
  • 12-Step facilitationtherapy


Over-the-counter Cough/Cold Medicines (Dextromethorphan or DXM)

Psychoactive when taken in higher-than-recommended amounts. For more information, see the Cough and ColdMedicine Abuse DrugFacts.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Robotripping, Robo, Triple C Various (many brand names include "DM") Syrup, capsule Swallowed Not scheduled
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Euphoria; slurred speech; increased heart rate, blood pressure, temperature; numbness; dizziness; nausea; vomiting; confusion; paranoia; altered visual perceptions; problems with movement; buildup of excess acid in body fluids.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues Breathing problems, seizures, and increased heart rate may occur from other ingredients in cough/cold medicines.
In Combination with Alcohol Increased risk of adverse effects.
Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to over-the-counter cough/cold medicines.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to over-the-counter cough/cold medicines.


PCP

A dissociative drug developed as an intravenous anesthetic that has been discontinued due to serious adverse effects. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality. PCP is an abbreviation of the scientific name, phencyclidine. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Angel Dust, Boat, Hog, Love Boat, Peace Pill No commercial uses White or colored powder, tablet, or capsule; clear liquid Injected, snorted, swallowed, smoked (powder added to mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana) I, II
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, problems thinking, a sense of distance from one’s environment, anxiety.
Low doses: slight increase in breathing rate; increased blood pressure and heart rate; shallow breathing; face redness and sweating; numbness of the hands or feet; problems with movement.
High doses: lowered blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate; nausea; vomiting; blurred vision; flicking up and down of the eyes; drooling; loss of balance; dizziness; violence; suicidal thoughts; seizures, coma, and death.
Long-term Memory loss, problems with speech and thinking, depression, weight loss, anxiety.
Other Health-related Issues PCP has been linked to self-injury.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Increased risk of coma.
Withdrawal Symptoms Headaches, sweating.
Treatment Options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to PCP or other dissociative drugs.
Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to dissociative drugs.


Prescription Opioids

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths. For more information, see the Misuse of Prescription Drugs Research Report.

Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
Captain Cody, Cody, Lean, Schoolboy, Sizzurp, Purple Drank
With glutethimide: Doors & Fours, Loads, Pancakes and Syrup
Codeine (various brand names) Tablet, capsule, liquid Injected, swallowed (often mixed with soda and flavorings) II, III, V
Apache, China Girl, China White, Dance Fever, Friend, Goodfella, Jackpot, Murder 8, Tango and Cash, TNT Fentanyl (Actiq®, Duragesic®,Sublimaze®) Lozenge, sublingual tablet, film, buccal tablet Injected, smoked, snorted II
Vike, Watson-387 Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (Vicodin®, Lortab®, Lorcet®, and others) Capsule, liquid, tablet Swallowed, snorted, injected II
D, Dillies, Footballs, Juice, Smack Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®) Liquid, suppository Injected, rectal II
Demmies, Pain Killer Meperidine (Demerol®) Tablet, liquid Swallowed, snorted, injected II
Amidone, Fizzies
With MDMA: Chocolate Chip Cookies
Methadone (Dolophine®, Methadose®) Tablet, dispersible tablet, liquid Swallowed, injected II
M, Miss Emma, Monkey, White Stuff Morphine (Duramorph®, Roxanol®) Tablet, liquid, capsule, suppository Injected, swallowed, smoked II, III
O.C., Oxycet, Oxycotton, Oxy, Hillbilly Heroin, Percs Oxycodone (OxyContin®, Percodan®, Percocet®, and others) Capsule, liquid, tablet Swallowed, snorted, injected II
Biscuits, Blue Heaven, Blues, Mrs. O, O Bomb, Octagons, Stop Signs Oxymorphone (Opana®) Tablet Swallowed, snorted, injected II
Possible Health Effects
Short-term Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, euphoria, confusion, slowed breathing, death.
Long-term Unknown.
Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Older adults: higher risk of accidental misuse or abuse because many older adults have multiple Prescriptions, increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions, and breakdown of drugs slows with age; also, many older adults are treated with Prescription medications for pain.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
In Combination with Alcohol Dangerous slowing of heart rate and breathing leading to coma or death.
Withdrawal Symptoms Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), leg movements.
Treatment Options
Medications Methadone
  • Buprenorphine
  • Naltrexone (short- andlong-acting)
  • Behavioral Therapies Behavioral therapies that have helped treat addiction to heroin may be useful in treating Prescription opioid addiction.


    Prescription Sedatives (Tranquilizers, Depressants)

    Medications that slow brain activity, which makes them useful for treating anxiety and sleep problems. For more information, see the Misuse of Prescription Drugs Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Barbs, Phennies, Red Birds, Reds, Tooies, Yellow Jackets, Yellows Barbiturates: pentobarbital (Nembutal®), phenobarbital (Luminal®) Pill, capsule, liquid Swallowed, injected II, III, IV
    Candy, Downers, Sleeping Pills, Tranks Benzodiazepines: alprazolam (Xanax®), chlorodiazepoxide (Limbitrol®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), triazolam (Halicon®) Pill, capsule, liquid Swallowed, snorted IV
    Forget-me Pill, Mexican Valium, R2, Roche, Roofies, Roofinol, Rope, Rophies Sleep Medications: eszopiclone (Lunesta®), zaleplon (Sonata®), zolpidem (Ambien®) Pill, capsule, liquid   IV
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Drowsiness, slurred speech, poor concentration, confusion, dizziness, problems with movement and memory, lowered blood pressure, slowed breathing.
    Long-term Unknown.
    Other Health-related Issues Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape drugs.
    Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
    In Combination with Alcohol Further slows heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Must be discussed with a health care provider; barbiturate withdrawal can cause a serious abstinence syndrome that may even include seizures.
    Treatment Options
    Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to Prescription sedatives; lowering the dose over time must be done with the help of a health care provider.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to Prescription sedatives.
    [Qn.No.15.Tranquilizers and Depressants are :]


    Prescription Stimulants

    Medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate. For more information, see the Misuse of Prescription Drugs Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Bennies, Black Beauties, Crosses, Hearts, LA Turnaround, Speed, Truck Drivers, Uppers Amphetamine (Adderall®, Benzedrine®) Tablet, capsule Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected II
    JIF, MPH, R-ball,Skippy, The Smart Drug, Vitamin R Methylphenidate (Concerta®, Ritalin®) Liquid, tablet, chewable tablet, capsule Swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected, chewed II
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Increased alertness, attention, energy; increased blood pressure and heart rate; narrowed blood vessels; increased blood sugar; opened-up breathing passages.
    High doses: dangerously high body temperature and irregular heartbeat; heart failure; seizures.
    Long-term Heart problems, psychosis, anger, paranoia.
    Other Health-related Issues Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
    In Combination with Alcohol Masks the depressant action of alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may increase blood pressure and jitters.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Depression, tiredness, sleep problems.
    Treatment Options
    Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat stimulant addiction.
    Behavioral Therapies Behavioral therapies that have helped treat addiction to cocaine or methamphetamine may be useful in treating Prescription stimulant addiction.


    Psilocybin

    A hallucinogen in certain types of mushrooms that grow in parts of South America, Mexico, and the United States. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Little Smoke, Magic Mushrooms, Purple Passion, Shrooms No commercial uses Fresh or dried mushrooms with long, slender stems topped by caps with dark gills Swallowed (eaten, brewed as tea, or added to other foods) I
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Hallucinations, altered perception of time, inability to tell fantasy from reality, panic, muscle relaxation or weakness, problems with movement, enlarged pupils, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness.
    Long-term Risk of flashbacks and memory problems.
    Other Health-related Issues Risk of poisoning if a poisonous mushroom is accidentally used.
    In Combination with Alcohol May decrease the perceived effects of alcohol.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
    Treatment Options
    Medications It is not known whether psilocybin is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to psilocybin or other hallucinogens.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if psilocybin is addictive and whether behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to this or other hallucinogens.


    Rohypnol®(Flunitrazepam)

    A benzodiazepine chemically similar to Prescription sedatives such as Valium® and Xanax®. Teens and young adults tend to abuse this drug at bars, nightclubs, concerts, and parties. It has been used to commit sexual assaults due to its ability to sedate and incapacitate unsuspecting victims.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Circles, Date Rape Drug, Forget Pill, Forget-Me Pill, La Rocha, Lunch Money, Mexican Valium, Mind Eraser, Pingus, R2, Reynolds, Rib, Roach, Roach 2, Roaches, Roachies, Roapies, Rochas Dos, Roofies, Rope, Rophies, Row-Shay, Ruffies, Trip-and-Fall,Wolfies Flunitrazepam, Rohypnol® Tablet Swallowed (as a pill or as dissolved in a drink), snorted IV
    Rohypnol® is not approved for medical use in the United States; it is available as a Prescription sleep aid in other countries
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Drowsiness, sedation, sleep; amnesia, blackout; decreased anxiety; muscle relaxation, impaired reaction time and motor coordination; impaired mental functioning and judgment; confusion; aggression; excitability; slurred speech; headache; slowed breathing and heart rate.
    Long-term Unknown.
    Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
    In Combination with Alcohol Severe sedation, unconsciousness, and slowed heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Headache; muscle pain; extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion, irritability; numbness and tingling of hands or feet; hallucinations, delirium, convulsions, seizures, or shock.
    Treatment Options
    Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to Rohypnol® or other Prescription sedatives.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to Rohypnol® or other Prescription sedatives.


    Salvia

    A dissociative drug (Salvia divinorum) that is an herb in the mint family native to southern Mexico. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Magic mint, Maria Pastora, Sally-D, Shepherdess’s Herb, Diviner’s Sage Sold legally in most states as Salvia divinorum Fresh or dried leaves Smoked, chewed, or brewed as tea Not Scheduled (but labeled drug of concern by DEA and illegal in some states)
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Short-lived but intense hallucinations; altered visual perception, mood, body sensations; mood swings, feelings of detachment from one’s body; sweating.
    Long-term Unknown.
    Other Health-related Issues Unknown.
    In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Unknown.
    Treatment Options
    Medications It is not known whether salvia is addictive. There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to salvia or other dissociative drugs.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if salvia is addictive, but behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to dissociative drugs.


    Steroids (Anabolic)

    Man-made substances used to treat conditions caused by low levels of steroid hormones in the body and abused to enhance athletic and sexual performance and physical appearance. For more information, see the Anabolic SteroidAbuse Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin®), oxandrolone (Anadrol®), oxymetholone (Winstrol®), stanozolol (Durabolin®), testosterone cypionate (Depo-testosterone®) Tablet, capsule, liquid drops, gel, cream, patch, injectable solution Injected, swallowed, applied to skin III
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Headache, acne, fluid retention (especially in the hands and feet), oily skin, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, infection at the injection site.
    Long-term Kidney damage or failure; liver damage; high blood pressure, enlarged heart, or changes in cholesterol leading to increased risk of stroke or heart attack, even in young people; aggression; extreme mood swings; anger ("roid rage"); paranoid jealousy; extreme irritability; delusions; impaired judgment.
    Other Health-related Issues Males: shrunken testicles, lowered sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts, increased risk for prostate cancer.
    Females: facial hair, male-pattern baldness, menstrual cycle changes, enlargement of the clitoris, deepened voice.
    Adolescents: stunted growth.
    Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
    In Combination with Alcohol Increased risk of violent behavior.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Mood swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts.
    Treatment Options
    Medications Hormone therapy.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat steroid addiction.
    [Qn.No.16.Man-made substances used to treat conditions caused by low levels of hormones in the body and abused to enhance athletic and sexual performance and physical appearance are:]


    Synthetic Cannabinoids

    A wide variety of herbal mixtures containing man-made cannabinoid chemicals related to THC in marijuana but often much stronger and more dangerous. Sometimes misleadingly called "synthetic marijuana" and marketed as a "natural," "safe," legal alternative to marijuana. For more information, see the Synthetic Cannabinoids Drug Facts.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    K2, Spice, Black Mamba, Bliss, Bombay Blue, Fake Weed, Fire, Genie, Moon Rocks, Skunk, Smacked, Yucatan, Zohai No commercial uses Dried, shredded plant material that looks like potpourri and is sometimes sold as "incense" Smoked, swallowed (brewed as tea) I
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Increased heart rate; vomiting; agitation; confusion; hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia; increased blood pressure and reduced blood supply to the heart; heart attack.
    Long-term Unknown.
    Other Health-related Issues Use of synthetic cannabinoids has led to an increase in emergency room visits in certain areas.
    In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Headaches, anxiety, depression, irritability.
    Treatment Options
    Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat synthetic cannabinoid addiction.
    Behavioral Therapies More research is needed to find out if behavioral therapies can be used to treat synthetic cannabinoid addiction.
    [Qn.No.17.A wide variety of herbal mixtures that is misleadingly called "synthetic marijuana" and marketed as a "natural,""safe," legal alternative to marijuana :]


    Synthetic Cathinones ("BathSalts")

    An emerging family of drugs containing one or more synthetic chemicals related to cathinone, a stimulant found naturally in the khat plant. Examples of such chemicals include mephedrone, methylone, and 3,4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). For more information, see the Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") DrugFacts

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    Bloom, Cloud Nine, Cosmic Blast, Flakka, Ivory Wave, Lunar Wave, Scarface, Vanilla Sky, White Lightning No commercial uses for ingested "bath salts" White or brown crystalline powder sold in small plastic or foil packages labeled "not for human consumption" and sometimes sold as jewelry cleaner; tablet, capsule, liquid Swallowed, snorted, injected I
    Some formulations have been banned by the DEA
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Increased heart rate and blood pressure; euphoria; increased sociability and sex drive; paranoia, agitation, and hallucinations; psychotic and violent behavior; nosebleeds; sweating; nausea, vomiting; insomnia; irritability; dizziness; depression; suicidal thoughts; panic attacks; reduced motor control; cloudy thinking.
    Long-term Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue; kidney failure; death.
    Other Health-related Issues Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases from shared needles.
    In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Depression, anxiety, problems sleeping, tremors, paranoia.
    Treatment Options
    Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat addiction to synthetic cathinones.
    Behavioral Therapies
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)
    • Contingency management, or motivationalincentives
    • Motivational Enhancement Therapy(MET)
    • Behavioral treatments geared toteens


    Tobacco

    Plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before use. For more information, see the Tobacco/Nicotine Research Report.

    Street Names Commercial Names Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule
    None Multiple brand names cigarettes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, smokeless tobacco (snuff, spit tobacco, chew) Smoked, snorted, chewed, vaporized Not Scheduled
    Possible Health Effects
    Short-term Increased blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate.
    Long-term Greatly increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer when smoked and oral cancers when chewed; chronic bronchitis; emphysema; heart disease; leukemia; cataracts; pneumonia.
    Other Health-related Issues Pregnancy: miscarriage, low birth weight, premature delivery, stillbirth, learning and behavior problems.
    In Combination with Alcohol Unknown.
    Withdrawal Symptoms Irritability, attention and sleep problems, increased appetite.
    Treatment Options
    Medications
    • Bupropion(Zyban®)
    • Varenicline(Chantix®)
    • Nicotine replacement (gum, patch,lozenge)
    Behavioral Therapies
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)
    • Self-helpmaterials
    • Mail, phone, and Internet quitresources


    B.Drugs and athletics

    Steroids are often prescribed for helping people with asthma, injury recovery and other medical reasons, but also used by athletes as performance enhancers. This is a good example of how much people are willing to risk their long term health for short term satisfaction. The use of steroids has filtered down to high school athletes in pursuit of greater physical achievement. Performance enhancers have made headlines for years in the track and field community and football, and the use of them by professional baseball players has become more publicized.
    With the increasing popularity of steroid use it is important for the healthcare professional to know the effects of steroids. The following is provided by the National Institute of Drug Abuse.
    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Anabolic Steroids

    What are anabolic steroids?

    Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone. The proper term for these compounds is anabolic-androgenic steroids. "Anabolic" refers to muscle building, and "androgenic" refers to increased male sex characteristics. Some common names for anabolic steroids are Gear, Juice, Roids, and Stackers.

    Some people abuse anabolic steroids to improve their physical appearance.Some people abuse anabolic steroids to improve their physical appearance.

    Health care providers can prescribe steroids to treat hormonal issues, such as delayed puberty. Steroids can also treat diseases that cause muscle loss, such as cancer and AIDS. But some athletes and bodybuilders abuse these drugs to boost performance or improve their physical appearance.

     
    [Qn.No.18.Some athletes and bodybuilders abuse ______ drugs to boost performance or improve their physical appearance.]
    How do people abuse anabolic steroids?

    People who abuse anabolic steroids usually take them orally or inject them into the muscles. These doses may be 10 to 100 times higher than doses prescribed to treat medical conditions. Steroids are also applied to the skin as a cream, gel, or patch.
    Some athletes and others who abuse steroids believe that they can avoid unwanted side effects or maximize the drugs' effects by taking them in ways that include:

    • cycling—taking doses for a period of time, stopping for a time, and then restarting
    • stacking—combining two or more different types of steroids
    • pyramiding—slowly increasing the dose or frequency of abuse, reaching a peak amount, and then gradually taperingoff.

    [Qn.No.19.‘Taking doses of steroids for a period of time, stopping for a time, and then restarting’,is known as:]
    There is no scientific evidence that any of these practices reduce the harmful medical consequences of these drugs.

     

    How do anabolic steroids affect the brain?

    Anabolic steroids work differently from other drugs of abuse; they do not have the same short- term effects on the brain. The most important difference is that steroids do not trigger rapid increases in the brain chemical dopamine, which causes the "high" that drives people to abuse other substances. However, long-term steroid abuse can act on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals—including dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems—that are affected by other drugs. This may result in a significant effect on mood and behavior. Short-Term Effects

    Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to mental problems, such as:

    • paranoid (extreme, unreasonable)jealousy
    • extreme irritability
    • delusions—false beliefs or ideas
    • impaired judgment

     

    What are other health effects of anabolic steroids?

    Aside from mental problems, steroid use commonly causes severe acne. It also causes the body to swell, especially in the hands and feet. Long-Term Effects

    Anabolic steroid abuse may lead to serious, even permanent, health problems such as:
    • kidney problems or failure
    • liver damage
    • enlarged heart, high blood pressure, and changes in blood cholesterol, all of which increase the risk of stroke and heart attack, even in young people


    Several other effects are gender- and age- specific:
    • In men:
      • shrinking testicles
      • decreased sperm count
      • baldness
      • development of breasts
      • increased risk for prostate cancer
    • In women:
      • shrinking testicles
      • growth of facial hair or excess body hair
      • male-pattern baldness
      • changes in or stop in the menstrual cycle
      • enlarged clitoris
      • deepened voice
    • In teens:
      • stunted growth (when high hormone levels from steroids signal to the body to stop bone growth too early)
      • stunted height (if teens use steroids before their growth spurt)
      • male-pattern baldness
      • changes in or stop in the menstrual cycle
      • enlarged clitoris
      • deepened voice
    [Qn.No.20. Several things affect how people react to anabolic steroid use including gender and age.True or False?]
    Some of these physical changes, such as shrinking sex organs in men, can add to mental side effects such as mood disorders.

    Are anabolic steroids addictive?

    Even though anabolic steroids do not cause the same high as other drugs, they can lead to addiction. Studies have shown that animals will self-administer steroids when they have the chance, just as they do with other addictive drugs. People may continue to abuse steroids despite physical problems, high costs to buy the drugs, and negative effects on their relationships. These behaviors reflect steroids' addictive potential. Research has further found that some steroid users turn to other drugs, such as opioids, to reduce sleep problems and irritability caused by steroids.

    People who abuse steroids may experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop use, including:

    • mood swings
    • fatigue
    • restlessness
    • loss ofappetite
    • sleep problems
    • decreased sex drive
    • steroid cravings
    [Qn.No.21. People who abuse steroids may experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop use, including:
    One of the more serious withdrawal symptoms is depression, which can sometimes lead to suicide attempts.

     

    How can people get treatment for anabolic steroid addiction?

    Some people seeking treatment for anabolic steroid addiction have found behavioral therapy to be helpful. More research is needed to identify the most effective treatment options.

    In certain cases of severe addiction, patients have taken medicines to help treat symptoms of withdrawal. For example, health care providers have prescribed anti-depressants to treat depression and pain medicines for headaches and muscle and joint pain. Other medicines have been used to help restore the patient's hormonal system.

    Points to Remember

    • Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone.
    • Health care providers can prescribe steroids to treat various medical conditions. But some athletes and body builders abuse these drugs to boost performance or improve their physical appearance.
    • People who abuse anabolic steroids usually take them orally or inject them into the muscles. They are also applied to the skin as a cream, gel, or patch.
    • Some athletes and other people abuse steroids by cycling, stacking, and pyramiding them.
    • Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to short-term effects such as mental problems. Extreme mood swings can also occur, including "roid rage"—angry feelings and behavior that may lead toviolence.
    • Continued steroid abuse can act on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals— including dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems—that are affected by other drugs.
    • Anabolic steroid abuse may lead to serious long-term, even permanent, health problems. Several other effects are gender- and age-specific.
    • People who inject steroids increase their risk of contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.
    • Even though anabolic steroids do not cause the same high as other drugs, they can lead to addiction.
    • Some people seeking treatment for anabolic steroid addiction have found behavioral therapy to be helpful. In certain cases of severe addiction, patients have received medicines to help treat symptoms ofwithdrawal.

     

    Learn More

    For additional information about anabolic steroids, visit:
    www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/ anabolic-steroid-abuse
    www.dea.gov/druginfo/drug_data_sheets/Steroids.pdf

    This publication is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from NIDA. Citation of the source is appreciated, using the following language:

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    In addition to steroids other drugs are used as performance enhancers or become part of a sports sub-culture. In listening to sports talk show programs or reading various news sources, it is a not so unspoken belief that in addition to steroids, athletes use other drugs for various reasons. These may include “speed” (Methamphetamines) , for baseball players to help them get through grind of a 162 game season. For basketball, marijuana seems to be most commonly associated and some believe it to be used by a wide array of players. With the aches and pains associated with sports, surgeries and injuries, pain killers can also have a devastating effect. With sports being such a large part of our culture, and drug use allegedly being wide spread in some sports, the public spread of drug use has become a larger part of our culture than it was previously. That does not mean more people are using, however.

     
    Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Dependency > Chapter 2 - Drugs That Get Abuse
    Page Last Modified On: November 26, 2017, 06:41 AM